Motivation in practice

Job enrichment

Giving employees more challenging and interesting tasks


Can be very motivating for employees when used correctly- refer to Herzberg.

But needs managers with theory Y approach of workers.


More difficult for managers to supervise workers and there will be some workers who do
not like the new working conditions. I.e. they may not be like empowerment and prefer a
target driven culture.

Job enlargement

Giving employees more tasks of a similar level of complexity


May involve job rotation. Less motivating than job enrichment but does remove
repetitiveness of job.

Easy to introduce and is not as threatening as empowerment. This can therefore provide
a simple solution to issues in the short run.


Potentially it is not as motivating as enrichment because workers are not been allowed to
make the full use of their skills.


Delegating power to employees so they can make their own decisions
Closely related to decentralized decision making

Very close links to delegation. Refer to advantages and disadvantages of delegation.

Also has close links to democratic management style.

Team working

Organising production and employees into groups or units. Offers employees an
opportunity to meet their social needs and often accompanied by some form of
empowerment for the team.


Mayo and Maslow’s social needs imply team working will improve motivation. Often
requires job roles to be changed (job enlargement or enrichment) and accompanied by


Workers used to clearly defined individual tasks which are linked to pay may resent
working in teams.

Can be expensive to reorganise production and incur training costs, team members may
not get on- some people work better individually.